Documentation/Calc Functions/CEILING

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Function name:

CEILING

Category:

Mathematical

Summary:

Rounds a number to the nearest multiple of a significance value. In most cases, the number is rounded up (toward +∞). However, a mode parameter is provided and when this is set to a non-zero value, then negative numbers are rounded down (toward -∞).

Syntax:

CEILING(Number [; Significance [; Mode]])

Returns:

Returns a real number that is the rounded value and is an integer multiple of the significance value.

Arguments:

Number is a real number, or a reference to a cell containing that number, that is the value to be rounded.

Significance is a real number, or a reference to a cell containing that number, that is the significance value to be used. If omitted, Significance defaults to +1 or -1 depending on the sign of Number.

Mode is a real number, or a reference to a cell containing that number, that is a Boolean mode indicator. Mode is only effective when both Number and Significance are negative. If Mode is present and equal to any non-zero value (including TRUE), negative numbers are rounded down (toward -∞). If Mode is omitted, or equal to zero or FALSE, negative numbers are rounded up (toward +∞).

  • If any argument is non-numeric, then CEILING reports a #VALUE! error.
  • If one of Number or Significance is positive while the other is negative, then CEILING reports an invalid argument error (Err:502).
  • If either Number or Significance is equal to 0, then CEILING returns 0.

Additional details:

Details specific to CEILING function

  • With Significance set or defaulted to -1 or +1 (with the same sign as Number) and Mode set or defaulted to 0 or FALSE, CEILING provides functionality that implements the standard mathematical definition of a ceiling value.
  • If you export a spreadsheet to Microsoft Excel, calls to the CEILING function are converted to CEILING.MATH (CEILING.MATH has existed in Excel since Excel 2013). If you intend to use a spreadsheet with earlier Excel versions, use either the CEILING.PRECISE function (that has existed in Excel since Excel 2010), or the CEILING.XCL function that is converted to CEILING on export and should be compatible with all Excel versions.

General information about Calc's ceiling functions

Note pin.svg

For convenience, the information in this subsection is repeated on all pages describing Calc's ceiling functions.


General introductory information about ceiling functions can be found at Wikipedia's Floor and ceiling functions page.

Calc provides five functions that can be used to calculate the ceiling value of a number, and these are:

The most important of these for many users will be the CEILING function, which implements the requirements laid out in Section 6.17.1 of ODF 1.2, Part 2.

Calc provides the CEILING.MATH, CEILING.PRECISE, and ISO.CEILING functions to increase interoperability with Microsoft Excel, which provides three similar functions with the same names. Calc's CEILING.PRECISE and ISO.CEILING perform identical functions.

Microsoft Excel's CEILING function accepts two arguments and so is not compliant with ODF 1.2. This difference in behaviour could lead to interoperability problems but these are avoided through the provision of the CEILING.XCL function, as follows:

  • When Calc saves a spreadsheet to Excel 2007-365 (*.xlsx) format, any call to Calc's CEILING function is converted to a call to Excel's CEILING.MATH function, and any call to Calc's CEILING.XCL function is converted to a call to Excel's CEILING function.
  • When Calc opens a spreadsheet in Excel 2007-365 (*.xlsx) format, any call to Excel's CEILING function is converted to a call to Calc's CEILING.XCL function.

Examples:

Formula Description Returns
=CEILING(11.5) Significance defaults to +1 and Mode defaults to 0. The function rounds up 11.5 to the nearest integer multiple of +1. 12
=CEILING(-11.5) Significance defaults to -1 and Mode defaults to 0. The function rounds up -11.5 to the nearest integer multiple of -1. ‎-11
=CEILING(7; 2.3) Mode defaults to 0. The function rounds up 7 to the nearest integer multiple of 2.3. 9.2
=CEILING(-7;-2.3) Mode defaults to 0. The function rounds up -7 to the nearest integer multiple of -2.3. ‎-6.9
=CEILING(D1; D2; D3) where cells D1, D2, and D3 contain the numbers 10, 3, and 1 respectively. The function rounds up the value 10 to the nearest integer multiple of 3. The value of Mode is not significant for a positive number. 12
=CEILING(-10; -3; 0) With Mode set to 0, the function rounds up the value -10 to the nearest integer multiple of -3. ‎-9
=CEILING(-10; -3; 7.6) With Mode set to a non-zero value, the function rounds down the value of -10 to the nearest integer multiple of -3. ‎-12
=CEILING(-3.6; ; TRUE) Significance defaults to -1. With Mode set to a non-zero value, the function rounds down the value of -3.6 to the nearest integer multiple of -1. ‎-4

Related LibreOffice functions:

CEILING.MATH

CEILING.PRECISE

CEILING.XCL

FLOOR

FLOOR.MATH

FLOOR.PRECISE

FLOOR.XCL

INT

ISO.CEILING

ODF standard:

Section 6.17.1, part 2

Equivalent Excel functions:

CEILING.MATH